History of permanent waves or perms and its health point of view.

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During the late 1800s and early 1900s, several hairdressers discovered that by applying chemicals and heat to women's hair, they could create curls and waves that would last for days, weeks, or even months. These hairstyles were called permanent waves or simply permanents. Permanents brought the latest technology into the world of women's fashion and beauty, and, because the machines were located in shops, rather than the home, they made women's hair care into a social event rather than a private ritual.
Founder of this style
This is a human nature to look different time to time and this human desire some times discover new and modern ways of fashion and style. Modern women was eager to find new ways to style their hairs with a new look.

A French hair stylist named Marcel Grateau (1852–1936) invented the first long-lasting hair waving technique in 1870.

In 1906 Charles Nestlé, a Swiss hairdresser working in London, England, invented a new and even more permanent way to style hair. His first permanent wave machine used gas to heat hair that had been wrapped around chemically treated pads. This actually caused the chemical composition of strands of straight hair to break down and re-form in curly strands, creating a wave that lasted for months. Later machines used electricity to heat the hair.

Around the turn of the 20th century, Karl Nessler developed a system that is closer to the present day method, which combined the chemical process with the thermal process. Using an alkali chemical combined with heated brass rollers, he developed a cumbersome machine that was capable of permanently curling hair. Around the turn of the 20th century, Karl Nessler developed a system that is closer to the present day method, which combined the chemical process with the thermal process. Using an alkali chemical combined with heated brass rollers, he developed a cumbersome machine that was capable of permanently curling hair.
The early part of the 1900s was an exciting time of new inventions and new freedoms for women. People wanted to try modern ways of doing things, and they wanted the latest styles, in hair as well as in clothes. Though the early permanent wave machines looked very strange, with separate wires leading to each chemical-wrapped curl, they were the most modern, and many women wanted to try the new style. New stores called beauty shops began to open, offering haircuts, styling, and permanent waves. These shops created places for women to gather and socialize while their hair was done.
While those women with straight hair wanted permanent curls and waves, others with naturally curly hair wanted their hair straightened. An African American hairdresser named Marjorie Joyner (1896–1994) invented a new, more compact permanent wave machine that also worked to straighten very curly hair. Patented in 1928, the machine was a dome-shaped helmet that used electrical current to heat hair which was clamped in one-inch sections.

Ms. Marjorie Stewart Joyner was the first patent-holder in the US for a permanent wave machine in 1928, becoming the first female African American to receive a patent. Stewart got the idea for her machine from a pot-roast cooker, which employed 16 pencil-shaped pot roast rods connected to an old-fashioned hair dryer hood and then joined together with a single electrical cord. Her invention was developed for African American women who wanted to change their hair's tight curl to a wave, but the machine also found another use in helping

Caucasian women add curl to their straighter hair. Curls from her machine lasted longer than regular thermal styling, and she also developed a scalp protector to help keep the patron comfortable.

In 1941, Evans and McDonough were the first one to use thioglycolic acid in the "Thio Cold Wave", which revolutionized the permanent waving industry and laid the foundation for the modern permanent waving method. Since the development of thoiglycolic acid (ammonium thioglycolate) a tremendous amount of research has been conducted in this area and quite an array of studies on permanent waving exist as literary sources.

Permanent waving has been popular among consumers with straight hair for many years. However, permanent waving was long thought to be impossible for consumers with excessively curly hair. In 1976, it was Jheri Redding who first started to experiment with permanent waving on excessively curly hair using small toothpicks for rolling the hair. This technique created a style that left the hair tightly curled yet still like the "Afro" style that was popular during the mid 1950s through the 1960s.

Later on, it was Willie Morrow who perfected the art of perming excessively curly hair. First, he would use ammonium thioglycolate cream for straightening the hair. Next he would wrap the hair on normal perming rods of various sizes. He would then perm the hair one more time with a permanent waving lotion called "curl booster". Finally, he would use a sodium bromate solution as a neutralizing solution, in order to avoid lifting the natural dark pigment of the excessively curly hair.

These early perms were very drying to hair, so the hair needed a strict daily regimen consisting of glycerin based products, known as curl activators, in order to combat the dryness and frizziness of the curled hair. The permanent wave process was further improved along with maintenance products and the ethnic hair care market experienced a tremendous growth spurt that continued well into the late 1980s. For the first time, men and women were able to wear their hair in carefree styles that required very little maintenance as compared to chemically straightened hairstyles.

Modern style of Perm

Due to the harsh nature of the chemicals, it is important that contact with the skin be minimized. Modern chemicals are less irritating, but measures should still be taken to reduce contact with anything other than hair.

A poorly performed permanent wave will result in breakage of the disulfide bonds through chemical reduction, because it fails to fix the newly formed bonds. This results in hair that is no longer elastic and flexible, but brittle and fragile. At this point, even combing the hair will result in hair loss. The hair shafts will experience fracture where they exit the scalp. Because the bulb of hair has not been removed though, the hair follicle is not damaged and the hair will regrow; however, the temporary hair loss may be distressing.

Home Perm
A number of brands of home permanent kits are available, but their numbers have decreased as permanent waves are not as popular as they were in the 1980s. The first popular home permanent was the Toni brand. The Toni company used a set of twins to advertise their products — one with a salon perm and one with the home perm. Another brand that was a household name in Britain in the late 1960s and 1970s was Twink.

First year Healthy diet plan for your child:

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Breast milk or iron fortified formula is the basic requirement for a new born, especially from the age of 0-12 months. A normal need for your baby is about 24 to 32 ounces of breast milk or infant formula daily. Keeping healthy diet in your mind you have to set a limit of this diet for your baby in a day. For that you should have to understand the fact that every cry of the baby is not necessarily for the hunger. That’s why try to avoid feeding your baby every hour (this is for his/her good health).

By doing the above mention practice your baby will be sooner or later come to a normal diet style, which would be easy to follow for you and your baby. But keep this in your mind that your baby can change her/his diet schedule very often.

In the phase of feeding a baby there are few things to avoid , these things are;

• Giving a breastfed baby a bottle before he is 4-6 weeks old.

• Putting cereal in the bottle.

• Introducing solids before 4-6 months.

• Feeding goats milk.

• Putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding.

• Feeding honey.

• Heating bottles in the microwave.

Tips on Baby’s room decoration:

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Your new born is a bundle of joy .His cute smile is treasure for you. You defiantly want to give your child all the best in the whole wide world. Besides their all other accessoriesParents start to explore best ideas to decorate his or her room. For those who are expecting a baby or having a little babythis is going to be an informative article for the ideas of making a beautiful room. Here are few easy tips for you;
1. Furniture for the baby’s room:

It is more practical to find out the furniture for your baby’s room first, because it can set all the directions of the room.

• Try to buy those items which can be convertible, like those cribs which can be converted into a love seat or a toddler bed.

• This investment could take you from "crib to college", as the cribs convert to full or twin beds, and the chests double as changing tables and dressers.

2. Size of the room:

One thing that you might want to consider before picking out the theme of your nursery is the size of the room you are decorating. If it is a smaller room, try something with big shapes and neutral colors instead of busy prints that may make your room feel clutter.

• To utilize more space choose the furniture with more than one function, like now a days there are few changing tables are available in the market with drawers in which you can change the dipper of the baby as well as can store his/her things.

3. Color of the room

Think about a color for your baby’s room.

•In most of the world pink color is specific for baby girls and blue for baby boys, however this is not necessary to put these colors on the baby’s room ,

• For example if you are expecting a baby and you don’t even know the gender you can choose a neutral and bright color like yellow, orange or red.

• Now a days there are even more brighter colors and even combinations available in the market either in curtains, wall paint colors cribs and other baby’s accessories.

• However keeping in mind that you are decorating a baby’s room, you can put patterns and even wall papers so that whenever you and your baby would be fed-up with the color you can easily change up the look of the room.

• Softer tones like blues, greens and pinks, begin to develop at the same rate so they're more pleasing to a newborn's eyes.

Designs of mehndi

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Applying Mehndi is a tradition in our country wheither it is any occasion of Eid, Shadi or any other happy event , here are some tips and few designs of mehndi which are attractive and easy to apply make a print of them and have them in your hand 
For Both hands and feets  

  • Always try to buy a cone to apply mehndi, for good results.

  • An attractive style of mehndi for both arms and half hands

  • Make a comparative big whole in your cone to make your mehandi result more bright, Try this idea and see,  

this style called Arabic style of mehndi

  • (for hands)

A beautiful design for feet

Now a days glitter mehndi is in fashion
Here are few designs

If you do not have enoygh time to get the color of mehndi you can have stamp mehndi which are

available in the market Although they are not good for skin but in emergancy you can use it once.

Here are few ideas
These mehnsi stemps are carvedon wood

Lado kay thaal

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Sweets, chocolates, candies n lados are in fashion these days for the mehandi function. It is a tradition to give a piece of some sweet thing to the bride or groom in the Rusam of Mehandi. For that purpose thaal of sweet can be made simple and attractive by using the following tips.

  • . You can make the thaal in a old but fancy looking tray and can decorate it either with ribben or gota or boath.

  •  Sometimes round base plates make even better look, so you can try it too.

  •  You can serve the sweet each piece in butter papers, it will look nice and tidy.

  •  In case of sweets(methai) there can be some tooth pics to hold them, just to avoid mess.

  • . For avoiding dust you can rape up your thaal with a fancy transparent gift rape and tie up with a fancy ribben.

Mehndi kay thaal:

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One of the greatest headaches in this function is to prepair the thaal of Mehndi. For various ideas people spent lots of money, and appoint designers for that as well, but there are so many ideas which are economical and can be possible in less budget. 

If you have to make it all by the first time, even then it can be easy and can be prepare in less budget. There are few ideas like using the cake plates, old and unused flower baskets, old kitchen plates etc. With a little touch of paints, colors, diyas ,beads, moti, small pieces of glass, colorful ribbons and even gota you can make traditional good looking mehndi thaals. Old glasses can be utilized to hold the mehandi as well.

Forever conveniences try to keep the thaal of your old functions which was in your family last year or even before that because with a little variation of these things you can make newer ones.

Mehndi function among Pakistani marriages

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No matter you are celebrating the mehandi function at home or a venue palce, there are varieties of ideas that can make you function beautiful, full of colors and inviting.
Mehndi is considered the most important and colorful function among Pakistani marriages.These are the soul of the whole function. So it is important to plan the function carefully , in Pakistan n even India people started the planning of this colorful function few months back, people spend lots of money on the decoration ideas of mehandi, Here are few unique and interesting ideas which involve less budget n can easily be followed in our mehandis;

Preparation of stage:

  • old but fancy bed spreads and other materials like net based clothes which are considered out of fashion or old fashion can all be utilized in the making of stage. These things can be well decorate with the help of fabric colors and pieces of glass etc,

  • A very simple and decent way to make arrangement for mahndi is to arrange the floor seating , for that you can arrange few cushions and soft pillos on a large area of your home And place them on the floor. you should make few seating (chairs or sofas) in one side, for those people who cannot sit on the floor for more time. In this setting you just have to arrange three seats or one set of sofa on one side to make the look of stage where the bride, groom can sit in the middle and guests on both sides.

  •  Stage can also be made with the help of a old style big bed. Pakistani Old traditional style furniture like mora wooden sofa set are in fashion now a days as well which can be used to make the main stage theme covered by long old curtains (with their new makings like decoration with beads, gota etc ). 
  • If you have traditional old style sofa with its accessories like its seating table and all other material, the stage accessories are no more to worry about because they are all made in one old set, even old tea trellis can also be utilized in the making of stage.

Face shape and hair cut or hair style that work or don’t

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There are thousands ways to style our hair. For those who like short hairs can manage their hair in best of their capacity, If you like your hair styled long, there are long frizzy hair styles, long curly hair styles, long layered hair styles,
long braided hair styles, etc.

However, there different face shapes.
Believe it or not, a hairstyle can help to accentuate or draw away from certain facial characteristics.
The following are tips on styles that can make
the most of your particular features:
Oval Face Shape
“Hair Styling Tricks that Flatter Your Oval Face Shape"
An oval face shape is considered an ideal shape and a fashion stylist's dream! The length of your face equals one and a half times the width. This face is well balanced and proportional.

Hair styling Focus for Oval Face Shape

Almost any length or style works well for this classic shape. Hair pulled off the face shows off the beautiful oval.  Try a classic long style with a center or side part and hair cascading to the shoulders. 

.So if you have bangs, the hair cut will draw attention to your nose and make it look more prominent.
Best hair style for oval shape face

Triangular Face Shape
“Hair Styling Tricks that Flatter Your Triangular Face Shape"

The triangular face shape has a wider and fuller lower part your jaw line is wider compared to your forehead and midpoint.
Hair Styling Focus for Your Triangular Face Shape
Select styles that add softness and width at the cheekbones and fill out a pointed chin. Hairstyles that utilize sleek side panels to slim the wide cheekbone areas are flattering.  Add fullness around the forehead and chin to form a more balanced oval appearance. How?
Hair cuts: Curls and waves on top adds width around temples. Side-parting. Irregular layers and wispy styles.
Best hair style for triangular face

Oblong Face Shape
“Hair styling Tricks that Flatter Your Oblong Face Shape"
The oblong face shape is another version of the oval shape but it has more length and less width.

Hair styling Focus for Oblong Face Shape
Your main focus is to make your face appear broader and shorter -- more like an oval. How?
Soften the sharp edges and angles of the face with muted layers and rounded hairstyles.  Try a side-swept fringe worn with
Hair should either be long enough to cascade to the tops of the shoulders or if shorter, should end either just above or below the jaw line.  Avoid harsh center partings, blunt cut bangs and all one length styles. long layered waves that play up cheekbones.
Hair styles:The oblong face shape is often burdened by appearing extremely narrow, and it also seems to have a short length overall. However, you may have found that this not to be entirely true. Why exactly? Because the outline of your face shape is one of many factors in determining what suits you best

Both blunt and side-swept bangs. Large curls and waves from the cheekbones and down to your jaw line -- avoid adding volume on top as it can elongate your face even more. Chin-length cuts and bobs -- the bob should end at the jaw, chin or cheekbones to show off bone structure.
Best hair style for oblong face shape

Round Face Shape
“Hair styling Tricks that Flatter Your Round Face Shape"
Many women who have a round face shape are considered having a "baby face" and are thought to be younger than their age so it's a positive thing!

Styling Focus for Round face Shape
Your goal here is to elongate your chin and create length on the side of your face, making it look more slimmer and oval. How?
Hair cuts: Gentle waves deflect the roundness by masking it. However, extremely curly or straight flat hair can accentuate the roundness. Wispy ends. Long hairstyles with layers around your face to create definition.
Focus on chiseling the width of the face by adding side-swept bangs, longer layered, shaggy or tapered styles that hug the cheeks. Avoid styles that add width to the sides of the face although some width at the crown can work wonders.
Best hair style for round shape face

Diamond and Heart Face Shape
“Hair styling Tricks that Flatter Diamond and Heart Face Shapes"
I've placed both Diamond and Heart face shape together on this page because they have two things in common: Wide cheekbones and narrow jaw line.

Diamond face shape is almost an oval where the widest point hits the midpoint of the sides of the face. The hairline and chin are noticeably narrower than the center (the widest part of the face).
Heart face shape
resembles the diamond. The only difference is that both forehead and midpoint are wider than your lower face.
Styling Focus for Both Face Shapes
Hair styles if you have heart face shape: Chin-length or longer styles. Side-parted hair styles. Swept-forward layers around the upper face but with gently wispy bangs. A chin length bob also looks great as it creates a balanced look by giving fullness where you need it -- the jawline.
Hair styles if you have a diamond face shape: Almost everything works with your face (as long as you are a true diamond with wider midpoints and narrow forehead and jaw line). You can wear shorter styles, however if you may need to leave weight in the back nape area like a heart shaped face. This will achieve more balance between your dramatic cheekbones and more delicate chin line.
Best hair style for diamond and heart shape face

Square Face Shape
“Hair styling Tricks that Flatter Your SquareThe square face shape gives an overall impression of strength. It's a sexy face shape. Think Angelina Jolie! Face Shape"

You probably have a very strong jaw line and might appear a bit "masculine" around the lower part of your face. This shape normally has an angular jaw and hairline of approximately the same width as the jaw line.
There are two versions of this face shape which are the rectangular (elongated square) like Angelina Jolie and Katie Holmes, and square-square like Naomi Watts'.
Styling Focus for Square Face Shape
If you're not happy about the strong impression of your jaw, try softening your jaw line with soft and curved shapes. Angular motifs should be avoided as it can enhance your square shape. If you have a very angular face shape, you might want to distract from the edges and elongate it by following my advice for round face shape. How?
Hair cuts: Long hair like curtains along the sides of your face. Long layers with sideswept bangs. Curly hair soften the strong lines, remember to keep the length below the jaw line.
Soften the sharp edges and angles of the face with muted layers and rounded hairstyles.  Try a side-swept fringe worn with long layered waves that play up cheekbonese.
Best hair style for square shape face